Methodology for Chinese Language Instruction in a Bilingual Setting

ED413B Methodology for Chinese Language Instruction in a Bilingual Setting

Course Overview
This course will familiarize students with the theory and practical applications of elementary and secondary strategies in primary language instruction, particularly for a bilingual setting. Literacy development and content area instruction will be emphasized with lesson plan design tied to language and content standards, and measured with various assessment tools. Students will learn how to access and evaluate primary language literature and other resources, and will gain competency in the integration and use of software in Chinese for the bilingual classroom. To provide students with ongoing opportunities to practice the listening, reading, speaking and writing competencies required for bilingual classroom, this class is conducted in Mandarin, readings are in English and/or Mandarin and student-led activities will be in both English and Mandarin.

This course addresses the following Standards and Expectations:

California Bilingual Authorization Program Standards

Standard 2: Assessment of Candidate Competence
Standard 3: Context for Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 

Standard 4: Bilingual Methodology
Standard 5: Culture of Emphasis
Standard 6: Assessment of Candidate Language Competence

California Educator Preparation Standards

Standard 3: Foundational Educational Ideas and Research
Standard 4: Relationships Between Theory and Practice
Standard 5: Professional Perspectives Toward Student Learning and the Teaching Profession
Standard 6: Pedagogy and Reflective Practice
Standard 9: Equity, Diversity and Access to the Curriculum for All Children Standard 10: Preparation for Learning to Create a Supportive, Healthy Environment for Student Learning
Standard 12: Preparation to Teach English Learners

California Teaching Performance Expectations (with an in-depth focus on TPE 7, Teaching English Learners)

TPE 1. Specific Pedagogical Skills for Subject Matter Instruction
TPE 2. Monitoring Student Learning During Instruction TPE 4. Making Content Accessible

TPE 5. Student Engagement
TPE 6. Developmentally Appropriate Teaching Practices
TPE 7. Teaching English Learners

TPE 8. Learning about Students

TPE 9. Instructional Planning
TPE 10. Instructional Time
TPE 11. Social Environment
TPE 12. Professional, Legal, and Ethical Obligations TPE 13. Professional Growth

Course Format

In each session, the instructor introduces the topic and presents information to supplement the assigned reading/activity. Students are expected to participate actively in class discussions, and therefore, are expected to complete the readings and assignments prior to the class.

During the initial class session, students take a survey of their beliefs about literacy development, the use of the target language, and the Chinese language instructional methodologies with which they are familiar. They will review their responses to the survey at the completion of the course to measure their learning. The second part of the initial session is framed around local, state and national efforts to cultivate multilingualism through dual language/bilingual programs; and federal, state and district policies and programs. Staff from the Los Angeles Unified School District Office will discuss historic court cases for English Learners, EL classifications, program options, instructional services and monitoring tools that are based on student outcomes.

Next, students review the World Language Content Standards for California Public Schools K-12 (California State Board of Education) together with the Standards for Chinese Language Learning (ACTFL), the World-Readiness Standards for Learning Languages (ACTFL), and LAUSD’s ELD standards. Class discussions will compare and contrast the rubrics and provide examples of how these standards are applied in real lesson plans. How to integrate the Common Core requirements in foreign language teaching will also be addressed.

Subsequent lessons introduce a variety of teaching resources and primary language literature for both elementary and secondary classrooms. Students are asked to research and create a binder of relevant resources and evaluate them for teaching language, and/or content, and/or culture, and/or literacy.  Students will be given a formatted checklist to use as a guideline. Materials can be drawn from a Chinese library (or a public library in a Chinese community) or online. The resource book should contain 10 entries (covering 10 books, DVDs or software programs, or any combination of these).

The bulk of class time is spent learning strategies for working with elementary and secondary learners, types of assessment tools, teaching across the curriculum, and the incorporation of differentiated instruction into lesson plan design. Students are asked to observe, create and implement bilingual classroom lessons and reflect on what they saw and/or did. Students develop and implement lesson plans that meet the language and academic content needs of their students, and reflect upon them with their peers and the instructor during weekly meetings and/or collaborative environment discussion groups.

As a final project, students are required to create an integrated bilingual unit of instruction that will addresses Chinese/English language and content development. This one-week integrated project enables students to gain experience in cross-curricular lesson plan development and instruction where Chinese language and other subjects such as math, science, social studies, arts or PE are integrated to meet grade-level appropriate standards. The strategies employed should be used to help students develop reading, writing, oral language, vocabulary and language structure through the instruction of content areas. Using educational technology in designing and teaching the unit, particularly for secondary candidates, is also required. An assessment tool, formal or informal, will also be required as will a scoring rubric.

Course Objectives

Students completing this course should demonstrate:

  • Create a facilitative and collaborative learning environment

  • Knowledge of a variety of instructional strategies applicable to both elementary and secondary Chinese language instruction;

  • Understanding of state and national content standards and content standards

  • Apply standards and best practices (including Backward Design) in

    curriculum, unit and lesson plan design

  • Utilize a variety of instructional strategies in Chinese, including but not limited to specific strategies for teaching pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading & writing) and three modes of communication

  • Assess students’ needs and achievements through various assessments including standardized tests

  • Ability to deliver all content in the target language

  • Familiarity with primary language literature, textbooks, software, and other resources

Develop strategies to engage students with varied learning needs

Course Policies and Grading

Students must attend all lectures and discussion sessions. Missing more than two class sessions will adversely affect one’s participation grade. Students should notify instructor of any necessary absences ahead of time to make arrangements. Students needing any accommodations should speak with the instructor at the beginning of the quarter. Important announcements will be posted on the course website and emailed by default to all enrolled students. In lieu of a final exam, students will create an integrated bilingual lesson unit demonstrating their skill at using various methodologies, technologies, and assessment tools selected for a specific grade-level and meeting specific content standards.

Participation (10%)

Students are expected to attend class regularly and participate in class discussions. Satisfactory completion of all assignments and projects is expected. There will be a 10% reduction on late papers and partial papers are unacceptable.

Survey (no grade value)

  • When teaching Chinese, what percentage of time do you feel it acceptable to spend not in the target language? ____ 5% _____10% _____ 20% ______ 50%. Other___________

  • When teaching Chinese, in what specific instances would you use English? What methodologies do you currently use (or do you know of) to teach in the target language?

  • Which methodologies do you think work best for elementary students? Why?

  • Which methodologies do you think work best for secondary students? Why?

  • What is your philosophy about literacy development? How can it be attained?

Resource Binder (10%)

Students are expected to research available materials and evaluate them for teaching language, and/or content, and/or culture, and/or literacy. Students are given a checklist to use as a guideline to help them distinguish genre, age- appropriateness, and to formulate a literacy activity that can be developed around the book/resource. Materials can be drawn from a Chinese library (or a public library in a Chinese community) or online. The resource book should contain 10 entries (covering 10 books, DVDs or software programs, or any combination of these). Materials can be in Chinese or in English and Chinese.

Resource Binder Checklist for Each Entry:

  • Genre

  • Title of the book

  • Author’s name

  • Illustrator’s name Library call number (if available)

  • Subject

  • Recommended grade level

  • Brief summary of book

  • Suggested teaching activities (2-3) to supplement learning/understanding

  • Related books or media materials

Classroom Observation, Summary, and Reflections (20%)

Students are required to observe four lessons in a Chinese bilingual classroom of their preferred grade level. The four summaries and reflections should be written in the language the student wishes to develop—whether Chinese or English—for the purpose of academic language development. Summaries should:

  • Describe the proficiency level, age/grade, needs, characteristics of your group of students;

  • Describe the teaching strategies used;

  • What percentage of time was spent in the target language?

  • Reflections should elaborate on the outcomes of the lessons: what worked, what didn’t, why, and what could be done differently.

Practicum and Reflection (30%)

In this exercise, students will demonstrate their understanding of a particular methodology and how it should be applied to a specific grade-level. The candidates will create a lesson and teach it to a classroom or small group of students in the appropriate K-12 age range. The lesson will be videotaped and presented to the class in a PPT presentation. In that presentation, students are also asked to:

  • Describe the proficiency level, age/grade, needs, characteristics of the group of students;

  • Describe the teaching method(s) used, and explain why it/they were chosen; Show a formatted lesson plan, and explain how differentiation is incorporated, if needed;

  • Reflect on the outcomes of the practicum: what worked, what didn’t, why, and what could be done differently.

Integrated Bilingual Lesson Unit (30%)

In this final assignment, students will create a 1-week integrated unit that combines both Chinese/English language learning and content development, such as would be required in a bilingual classroom setting. This exercise allows students to gain experience in cross-curricular instructional design where Chinese language and other subjects such as math, science, social studies, physical education, and language arts are integrated into one thematic unit. The methodology used in the lessons should help children develop reading, writing, oral language, vocabulary, and language structure in both English and Chinese, while also teaching content.

Technology should be employed as appropriate. Classroom worksheets and assessment forms should be included, along with an evaluation rubric.

Students are asked to teach one of the unit’s lessons in a Chinese/English bilingual classroom or to a small group of bilingual students and self-critique the experience. The self-critique should be summarized at the back of the paper and should discuss the level of student involvement and participation, accomplishment of learning objectives, suggested improvements, and feedback from the mentor teacher, if applicable. Students will have a chance to read one of their classmates’ papers as a homework assignment and discuss it in class.

REQUIRED TEXTS

Curtain, Helena. Teaching in the Target Language. http://nclrc.org/about_teaching/topics/PDFs/FeatureCurtain- TeachingintheTargetLanguageFINAL.pdf

Everson, M and Xiao, Y. (2008). Teaching chinese as a foreign language: theories and applications. Boston, MA: Cheng & Tsui.

Haas, Mari (2000). Thematic, communicative language teaching in the K–8 classroom. ERIC Publications. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED444380.

Hadley, Alice Omaggio.(2001). Teaching Language In Context (World Languages), 3rd Edition. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle Press.

Kublder, C. C., Y. Biq, G. C. Henrichson, R. Walton, M. Wong, W. L. Wu, and C. Yu. (2007). NFLC Guide for Basic Chinese Language Programs. Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Resource Center.

Lessow-Hurley, J. (2009). The foundations of dual language instruction. New York: Longman.

McGinnis, Scott. (1996). Chinese pedagogy: an emerging field. Columbus, Ohio: Foreign Language Publications.

Partnership for 21st century skill. 2004. 21st Century Skills Snapshot (Click on FRAMEWORK, then OVERVIEW). www.21stcenturyskills.org.

SUPPLEMENTAL READINGS

Callahan, Clark, & Kellogh, Teaching in the Middle and Secondary Schools, 2001

Guillaume,A.; Yopp, R.; Yopp H. 50 Strategies for Active Teaching. Columbus Ohio. Pearson. 2007

Oxford, Rebecca. Teaching & Researching: Language Learning Strategies. 2011.

Shrum, Judith L. & Gilsan, Eileen. (2016) Teacher's Handbook: Contexualized Language Instruction, 5th Edition. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.